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Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. The country is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The countries name is derived from "Birú", the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, in Panama, in the early 16th century.

Peru is a developing country with its main economic activities being agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles. However, around 29% of the population are still living in poverty, residing in dwellings in shanty towns devoid of amenities.

Flag of Peru
The national flag of the Republic of Peru.

Peru was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spaniards conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru underwent periods of see sawing political unrest and stability, as well as cycles of fiscal crisis and economic upturns.

Peru's geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains, and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages.

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BC. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by cultures such as Cupisnique, Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century the Incas emerged as the most powerful early Peruvian civilizations, and in the span of a century formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa. Ten years later the Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of its South American colonies.

In the early 19th century most of South America was swept by wars of independence. Peru however remained a royalist stronghold until independence was achieved as a result of the military campaigns by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.


Perus's capital city is Lima, which is also the largest urban centre in the country. In fact, approximately 1/3 of the Peruvian population lives within the city's metropolitan area.

Lima is located in the central part of the country and is nestled in the valleys of the Chillon, Rímac and Lurín rivers, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Combined with the seaport of Callao, Lima forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area.

Lima has a population close to 9 million, making it the most populous metropolitan area of Peru, and the fourth largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City. Lima is also one of the largest financial hubs in Latin America.

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, and originally called, "la Ciudad de los Reyes", or "the City of Kings". It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru.

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Places To Visit And Things To Do While In Peru

There is much to see and do in Peru. Like Egypt, Peru has a wealth of ancient structures, many of which are thought to date back farther than the Pyramids of Giza Here are a few of the sights to see, cities to visit, and tours to take.

Hidden Inca Tours


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Republic Of Peru Coat Of Arms

Peruvian coat of arms